Crusader Castles in the Holy Land 1097 – 1192 The Crusaders who arrived in the Middle East in the late-11th century brought with them their own traditions of military architecture, but it was not long before their defensive constructions began to reflect a broad array of local influences. Most early Crusader fortifications were relatively small, and often relied on the existing natural and defensive features of a site. The basic forms comprised freestanding towers, castra, and hilltop and spur-castles, but urban centres, religious sites and rural dwellings were also fortified.From the 1160s, bigger, stronger and more expensive castles began to appear, largely in response to developments in Islamic siege weaponry. The Knights Templar and the other Military Orders in the Holy Land had defensive and well as offensive tactics. Much attention has been given to the offensive tactics but these Knights had to live somewhere when not fighting battles against the ‘Infidel’. Such living quarters had to be located near to the ‘front line’ and afford defence against attack. As usual colour maps, diagrams, photogpahs and artwork greatly enhance our understanding of Crusader castles. This title examines the early fortifications erected in the Middle East and examines actual locations and the purpose they served. 64 pages. 7 1/8 inches x 9 3/4 inches (183cm x 247cm).£10.99. Post and Packing extra.